Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education in Sierra Leone

INTRODUCTION

Sierra Leone is located on the south-west, north west and north-east from the Republic Guinea, on the south-west from the Republic of Liberia and on southwest from the Atlantic Ocean. It’s a place of 27,925 square kilometers. The colony of Sierra Leone originated from the selling and cession from 1787 by native chiefs into English lands of a part of property intended as a home for African American settlers that had been waifs at London and afterwards it was used as a settlement for freed African American slaves.

Instruction is offered by both personal and for-profit colleges. The present system of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Main faculty, three years Junior Secondary School, four decades old Secondary School, and four decades tertiary/higher education Click here. This program is complemented with non- formal schooling.

Adult Education, Write, Knowledge, Power

Notion of EDUCATION

Instruction is often utilized in the sense of education from the classroom, lab, workshop or national science room and is composed mostly from the imparting from the instructor, along with the acquisition by students, of advice and psychological in addition to manual abilities. A broader significance than schooling is that of education. That’s to say everything that goes on inside the college as part of their student’s life there.

It has, among other matters, the connection between students and teachers, students, and students both in and beyond the school. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that anything helps to form the human being to create the person what he’s or dissuade him from being what he’s not is a portion of his schooling. Implicitly instruction is lifelong and omnipresent; it’s the sum total of influences that go to make a man what he is, from birth to death. It features the house, our neighbors, and also the road amongst others.

Education would be to some degree a willful intended procedure invented and ran by the instructor with the goal of imbuing the student with specific information, abilities, of body and mind in addition to styles of behaviour considered desirable. In part it’s the student’s own reply to the environment where he resides.

Education includes three focal points: the individual/person upon whom the instructor’s influences are brought to bear; the community or society to which he belongs; along the entire circumstance of reality within the person and culture play their role. Man is a social animal; he develops as a man through the effect of personality on character; and even because of his basic physical needs he is based upon the assistance and collaboration of his fellow women and men.

Among the basic facts of human presence is that the pressure between the pull of yesteryear and the forwards impulse to the near future, between change and stability, innovation and tradition. For successful living,guy desires a circle of safety, an area of established customs and connection that creates reliable relationships.

For effective functioning there needs to be an inherent continuity of customs and prognosis which preserves its individuality as a society and protects it against the disruptive effects of shift. Change needs to be for life and not static but this shift, in turn, has to be commanded by the fundamental customs of society. It’s a tradition that provides a country its own character and distinctiveness for a society. The conservation of heritage consequently is always crucial.

It’s been recognized from time immemorial the conservation of conventional education has a very important role to play in the creation of the child. The kids of today will be the adults of tomorrow; they have to be educated consequently, to inherit and reevaluate the beliefs and styles of life peculiar to the specific society to which they belong. For each and every society gets the urge to maintain itself not just physically but as neighborhood knowingly sharing particular goals, ideals and patterns of behaviour.

This sort of instruction isn’t necessarily formal in universities by way of classroom education but effected indirectly throughout the household and throughout the influence on the person of social influences and habits that the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone, this societal education comprised intricate ceremonies of initiation between feats of endurance where young women and men have to prove themselves worthy of their community.

The best aim was to create a person that had been fair, respectful, proficient, concerted, and who might adapt to the social order of this day. Since Aristotle previously mentioned”the constitution of a country will endure if education is failed. The citizens of a country should be educated to match the constitution of this nation. The kind of character right to a constitution would be that the energy that has been sustaining it as it’s also the country force that initially made it” (p. I).

Conventional schooling has both a conservation and creative purpose in society; it’s a powerful way of maintaining a society’s customs, or even civilization. Previously the character and demands of society played an essential role in deciding the disposition of education.

Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his publication, Glaucon, who”at a calm society that the instructional system will have a tendency to reflect the societal pattern, while societal uneasiness and instability produce an opportunity for utilizing education as a tool of social influence”(p.7). Education appears both to the past and the future; it reflects the customs and nature of society. Standard schooling may be employed to prepare for changes in society and expect and stop changes or the consequences of changes in society.

Classic schooling conserves and hands about the habits and manners of life that constitute the nature of a society also preserves its own unity. Additionally, it helps society to translate its roles in new approaches to satisfy the challenges of change, seeking ways or traces of development that are in accord with the customs and habits and will at precisely the exact same time increase society into a more complete satisfaction of itself.

History shows that there were not any formal schools in which kids were taught at Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. They had been bush schools. Along with the schooling these bush schools supplied was casual. Kids who travelled through those secret societies were believed capable of carrying out their civic duties.

They became adults also can marry and begin life. They believed themselves as one household. In other words Secret Societies made a feeling of comradeship and unity among members regardless of household, clan or cultural affiliation. It was therefore believed that kids who hadn’t gone through these secret societies weren’t completely matured.

The religious mind of the Poro Society is currently Pa Gbonu, found only by the elderly graduates or associates. They guide the actions of this institution. The senior teachers are the Pa Kashis, who normally teach and provide directions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function as educators into the initiates while the Kachemas would be the contested spirits. They frighten the women and kids alike with all the new initiates. The Rakas would be the errand boys carrying messages about.

The Yambas would be the mind boys. The Bomos would be the senior prefects while the Sayboms would be the prefects; and the tracks will be the Gbanaboms. Casual classes are held at the Secret Poro Bush. In Creative Practical Arts commences are taught how to make fishing nets, mats, baskets, and dividing wood and soap stones into various items like animals and people; in Performing Arts starts are taught singing, dance, and using Poro musical instruments.

In Practical Agriculture initiates clinic farming. Boys are taught to endure hardship without criticism and grow up to it. But during the crop season starts could pass through those farms carrying whatever they eat and need without being challenged by plantation owners. In the usage of herbs initiates pay cash (some openly given) for curing various sicknesses in addition to for defense against enemies, evil spirits, and snake bites.

Initiates that wish to cause injury to other people utilizing herbs may’redeem’ the herb/medicine concerned. Over all starts are taught a fresh Language spoken exclusively by members named Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika significance I’m talking to youpersonally; fonka bonomi meaning Speak with me. The usage of the new Language makes individuals happy and feel distinct from non-initiates. A graduation service climaxes the function.

Parents create enormous preparations such as sewing dresses for its graduates. Those qualified for initiation should have been circumcised and increased to age . They must stay by themselves throughout the period of instruction that ranges from one to seven decades. Graduates are fully admitted to the overall Poro society through a different service named Enkorie, which continues for four times.

The Bondo/Sande Society is the association where women are educated for womanhood. Its religious mind is Na Bondigba. All these have religious powers used to foretell the long run and capture witches. They’re the senior instructors. The Na Sokos would be the support educators. They can commence women up to the advanced phase of this Society. The Digbas would be the overall educators and remain near the initiates. The Sampas would be the skillful boxers and errand girls/women. They make statements about the progress and actions or applications throughout the graduation ceremony.

The Na Fets, as its name suggests don’t understand all of the secrecy of this institution. The Karr Ayeamus would be the’waiters’ to be initiated to the higher standing of their institution. Girls confessed to the Bondo/Sande Society are educated . Courses are held in Kantha or sacred house. The teachers are mostly concerned with the transmission to those adolescent girls the knowledge and skills which mature girls are expected to own so as to operate properly and intelligently in their own community.

In Cooking, women are taught how to prepare meals through monitoring and involvement in the preparation of different dishes and are afterward permitted to take a go with minimal if any supervision. People who couldn’t cook properly are permitted to replicate. In Performing Arts women are taught how to write and sing music and the way to conquer the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories).

Further women are taught how to assist their potential husbands and the best way to look after children particularly those of mature members. Both parents and potential husbands would purchase new dresses, lace, perfumes, powder, and beads to produce necklaces. This shows an indication of adulthood. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society continues between a month or two and three decades.

CHALLENGES

If schooling has the very important purpose of perpetuating the values and traditions of society, instead of adapting them to a changing environment, as well as increasing them to wealthier and more profitable term then both Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as conventional agents of the procedure should delight in a position of the maximum esteem. Through these key societies that the country’s culture flows from 1 generation to another and also the dreams of society are concentrated with telling and intimate persuasion upon the youthful.

They stand in a place where the joys of kids are introduced into creative and new possibilities. During these secret societies, kids recall the previous activities of the predecessors. They assist in the behavioral training routines of society. These societies are associations of both inspiration as well as politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. Important and binding decisions are taken at the Poro Bush of that members are permitted to attend and participate. In emergency-ridden situations, a major conclusion is taken from Poro Bush. The Poro society acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and may promulgate general legislation and govern trading practices.

Western education has been around in the nation for extended and has become so integral portion of the civilized lifestyle that there’s a propensity to assume it is the sole or main way of imparting skills, knowledge and societal values in kids. This isn’t true in Sierra Leone. The significance of this Poro and Bondo conventional secret societies can’t be over-sighted due to their tremendous potentiality in teaching children for life in society. Fundamental is that respect for men as persons would be the cornerstone of conventional society.

All these are passed to kids in the surroundings where they are a part of their everyday experiences. Notwithstanding, these conventional institutions as representatives of schooling are now faced with numerous challenges there-by forcing their passing. The custom of female genital circumcision is of global concern and in Sierra, Leone individuals are well known for its entire ban. Currently, women are permitted to be circumcised at age during which time that the child is regarded as grown enough to select whether or not to become initiated in the Bondo/Sande society.

Additionally, the period of initiation is sensed as overly long and has been contested. Besides kids nowadays no longer need to be initiated within these societies to be educated on how to become tidy, cook, back children, practice agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to mention a few instances. These can be learned either outside or through informal instruction through studying. What’s more Religion, particularly Christianity and Islam, western lifestyle, in addition to rural-urban migration are forcing these secret societies into obliteration.

Aside from the actions and function of those traditional societies aren’t in program form and recorded. Neither additionally is using herbs recorded. Therefore by quitting these standard secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to shed their ethnic heritage. If however, schooling has the very important purpose of perpetuating the values and traditions of society, instead of adapting to a changing environment, as well as increasing them to a richer and more profitable expression then these standard secret societies, even as representatives of the procedure should delight in a position of the maximum esteem.

Through these societies that the federal culture flows from 1 generation to the dreams of society are concentrated with telling and intimate persuasion upon the youthful. These secret societies endure at the point at which the energies of kids are introduced into creative and new possibilities.